See "micro" know what trace elements-iodine










Iodine, an essential trace element found earlier in humans, is an essential component of the thyroid gland. Its biochemical function is mainly throughthyroid hormoneThe biological effects are more extensive, mainlyPromote the body's material metabolism, maintain the normal growth and development of animals; enhance the reproductive function of mothers, improve the conception rate and farrowing rate; maintain the normal structure of the central nervous systemand other functions.


Announcement No. 2625 of the Ministry of Agriculture stipulates that the recommended amount and maximum limit of iodine in compound feed or total mixed diet are as follows:


A person's lack of iodine can easily lead to goiter (I. e., big neck disease). Iodine deficiency or iodine deficiency of animals will affect the growth, development and reproduction of livestock and poultry, such as hairless, thick skin, thick neck, hindered growth and development, and weakened reproductive performance.








Forms of Iodine & Absorption Metabolism




Form of Iodine


70% to 80% of the iodine in animals exists in the thyroid gland, as an important component of thyroid hormones, and a small amount of iodine is distributed in tissues and organs such as muscles, skin and bones.


iodineinorganic state and organic stateTwo forms exist. The inorganic state mainly includes potassium iodide, potassium iodate, calcium iodate, etc.


Among themPotassium iodideEasy to be oxidized, sublimation to iodine, poor stability. In the production process, the phenomenon of yellowing of packaging bags is mainly caused by iodine sublimation.Potassium iodateSoluble in water, under the action of light and water, will accelerate the decomposition, acidic substances, metal salts, etc. will affect its stability.Calcium IodateIt is a common feed iodine additive with good stability and high bioavailability.


Organic iodine is mainlyDiiodosalicylic acid, ethylenediamine dihydroiodateWait. Although diiodosalicylic acid is easy to absorb, most of it will be excreted from urine with low biological potency. Ethylenediamine dihydroiodate reacts with sulfate to free elemental iodine under high temperature conditions in storage, which will stimulate animal intestinal mucosa or corrode containers.


Absorption, Utilization and Metabolism of Iodine


The main site of iodine absorption in monogastric animals is the small intestine, followed by the stomach.

Iodine in the digestive tract of animals is mainlyiodine ionThe form is absorbed and utilized in the thyroid gland. In the thyroid gland, the process of iodine ion absorption and utilization can be simply described:

(iodine activated)-- Iodine ions are oxidized to iodine by peroxidase;(iodinated)-- Binding to tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and to diiodotyrosine;condensation)-- after condensation,Triiodothyronine and serum thyroxine are generated by the action of proteolytic enzymes, ④(Release)-Then through the blood circulation into the body tissue to play a physiological function.

Absorption and utilization of iodine ions in the thyroid gland

TG: Thyroglobulin;T: Tyrosine;

MIT: monoiodotyrosine; DIT: diiodotyrosine;

T4: tetraiodothyronine (thyroid hormone);

T3: Triiodothyronine


After iodine is absorbed and utilized, most of it is excreted through urine, and a small part of it is excreted through feces, sweat glands and animal products.









Factors affecting the absorption of iodine in the body




Other trace elements

Calcium in the diet can hinder the absorption of iodine,Inhibits the synthesis of thyroxineAccelerate the discharge of iodine. in the dietPhosphorus and iodine have a synergistic effect.



The cassava and corn in the diet contain thiocyanate, which can be reversed into thiocyanate in the gastrointestinal tract,Competitive inhibition of iodide transport to the thyroidIncreased iodine excretion.


Form of Iodine

The main sources of iodine in the feed industry are calcium iodate, ethylenediamine dihydroiodate, potassium iodide, etc. Among themCalcium Iodateis the most widely used source of iodine in the feed industry,This is because of itsHigh purity and bioavailabilityand chemical in premix mineral feed or livestock feedLow reactivity, good stability.









Application of Iodine in Animal Production




Adding iodine to the dietMaintain the normal metabolism of energy, regulate the metabolism of livestock and poultry, promote the growth and development of animal body, promote the growth of fur, improve the utilization rate of feed, improve the reproductive performance and iodine content in animal productsWait.


Research and application in poultry production


Stanley等 The study found that inMeatChicken per liter of drinking water to add 2mg of iodine, compared with the control group, can significantly improveGrowth weight of broiler chickens after 4 weeks of age.


(Source Network)


Research and application in pig production


Xi Gang et alSupplementation of 0.5 mg/kg iodine in the diet of pregnant sows significantly improved compared with the control group (supplemented with 0.14 mg/kg iodine).The birth weight of pigletsand canIncrease in live litter size and average litter weightThis may be related to the regulation of thyroxine and gonadotropin by thyroid hormone.


Cheng Zexin et alIn weaned piglets diets were added with 2.8 mg/kg, 1.4 mg/kg iodine feed, the results showed that: compared with the control group,Significant increase in pig end weight and feed utilization ratealso better than the control group.


Research and application in ruminants


Feng Jian et alThirty 6-year-old Holstein cows were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed with normal diets for 5 weeks.(According to the 6th edition standard of NRC in the United States, the composition of conventional control diet is prepared)and different levels of high iodine diets(The iodine addition of the control group and the experimental group were 10,20, 30,40 mg/kg, respectively).The test showed that compared with the iodine content in the milk of the control group, the test groupThe iodine content is correspondingly 9 to 20 times higherThe difference is very significant. Therefore, the iodine content in milk can be greatly increased by high iodine diet.


Xu Bin et alThe results showed that the pregnancy rate and daily milk yield of dairy cows were increased, and the average number of empty pregnant days was shortened when 0.41 mg/kg iodine was added to the diet of dairy cows. In addition, cow serum protein-bound iodine content also increased. Therefore, adding an appropriate amount of iodineIt is beneficial to improve the reproductive performance and production performance of dairy cows..





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