See "micro" know | trace element-manganese








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Distribution of Manganese in the Body & Physiological Functions



Manganese is distributed in all tissues of animals, with the highest concentrations in bone, liver, kidney and pituitary.

The content of manganese in animals is only 2~3 mg/kg, but it plays an important physiological function: manganese can promotebone growthrole, is necessary for normal bone formation of trace elements; manganese is a numberEnzyme components, activators, for bone development, brain function, reproductive functionNecessary, participationCarbohydrate, fat, protein metabolism, animal manganese deficiency will occur growth retardation, bone deformity, reproductive performance disordersand other symptoms.







absorption of manganese in the body



Manganese can be absorbed in all segments of the digestive tract, of which duodenal absorption is the main. At present, there are inorganic manganese (such as manganese sulfate), amino acid complex manganese (such as manganese methionine), small peptide chelated manganese, etc. Different forms of manganese have different absorption mechanisms.

In the 1990 s, many experiments proved that the final product of protein in the digestive tractMostlyare small peptides rather than free amino acids, theseSmall peptides can be directly absorbed into intestinal mucosal cells by passive objects..

I small peptide can be directly transported into small intestinal cells

Small Peptide II Decomposition into Amino Acids in Small Intestinal Cells


Therefore, small peptide trace element chelates with small peptide as the main ligand can beThe whole form is transported. And there are research reports,Small peptides and free amino acids in animals haveIndependent absorption mechanisms. Compared with the amino acid transport system, peptide absorption has the advantages of fast absorption, low energy consumption, high efficiency, and difficult carrier saturation (Rerat).

In addition, studies suggest that inorganic trace elements need to be associated with the gastrointestinal tractorganism binding as well as in the transportertransport can be absorbed by the body, vulnerable to gastrointestinal contents, other trace elements interference.

Therefore,Small peptide as a ligand of small peptide chelate manganese, mainly through the absorption channel of small peptide is absorbed by the body, will be more advantages than amino acid manganese, inorganic manganese, etc. in the absorption and utilization efficiency,It is more conducive to the improvement of the biological potency of trace elements, and can avoid the competition of metal ions in the intestinal absorption, low amount and high efficiency.







Factors affecting the absorption and utilization of manganese in the body




diet composition


in feedPhytic acid can be combined with manganese to form insoluble single salt or chelate, so that the soluble manganese is reduced, so that the animal's absorption of manganese is reduced. Generally speaking,With the increase of phytic acid level, the absorption of manganese in broilers decreased significantlyWhen the level of phytic acid in the diet was 0.8%, it was enough to significantly decrease the manganese content in the whole chicken and tibia.

In addition, in the diethigh calcium and high phosphoruscan lead to the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates in the intestine,The precipitation adsorbs the dissolved manganese ions and is discharged together from the digestive tractThis increases the lack of manganese. Studies have also shown that excess calcium and phosphorusReduces manganese storage in boneAnd the effect of phosphorus is greater than that of calcium.


Other trace elements

in the state of inorganic salts,Manganese, iron and cobaltIn the process of absorption mechanics of the poultry body, the commonCompeting for the same binding siteIt has an antagonistic effect, and at this time it is often one metal that inhibits the absorption of another metal.

It is generally believed that manganese and zinc have synergistic effects, and tests have shown that zinc can promote the deposition of manganese in chickens. There is a certain degree of substitution between manganese and magnesium. When manganese in the pyruvate carboxylase is partially replaced by magnesium, the catalytic properties of the enzyme are hardly affected.


Forms of Manganese

According to the absorption mechanism of inorganic trace elements, amino acid trace elements and small peptide chelate trace elements,Organic manganese is more stable than inorganic manganese, more easily absorbed by animals.

And small peptide chelated manganese can rely on small peptide unique absorption system to promote the absorption of manganese, with antagonisticAnti-small, strong anti-interference ability, good stability, not easy to dissociate, efficient absorption and utilizationand other advantages.







Application of Manganese in Livestock and Poultry




Application of Manganese in Poultry

Poultry generally have higher manganese requirements than mammalsThe impact of manganese deficiency on poultry is more serious than that of livestock. In the actual feeding process,The level of manganese is low, and the manganese in the basic diet is far from meeting the needs of chickens, so it is necessary to add manganese-derived substances to the diet.

Manganese is one of the important factors to promote gonadal development and endocrine function in broilerswhich can be deposited in the hypothalamus across the blood-brain barrier. Both manganese deficiency and high manganese are detrimental to the reproductive performance of broilers. Studies have shown that the addition of manganese in the diet of roosters has a significant effect on the amount of semen in roosters, and excessive manganese can inhibit the production of rooster semen, but has no obvious effect on the pH of sperm and semen (Li Dan).

Hossain and other tests showed that when the level of manganese in the chicken dietAbove NRC requirement (20 mg/kg)When the egg production rate and egg weight will increase, the content is.50mg/kgWhen the egg production rate reached its peak, the content was75mg/kgThe egg weight reaches its peak.

daily grain contentTendinosis and reproductive disorders in poultry below 10 mg/kg. The lack of manganese in the rooster will cause the reduction of cholesterol synthesis, the degeneration of the testicular seminiferous tubules of the rooster, the testosterone content decreased significantly, and the sperm count decreased significantly, which can lead to male infertility. Gao Cao Sheng's research shows that the reproductive performance of hens is impaired by manganese deficiency, the follicle-stimulating hormone in serum is significantly decreased, the egg production rate and egg production are significantly decreased, and the rate of breaking soft eggs is significantly increased.

(Manganese deficiency in chicken, slippery tendinosis)

Do not add excessive manganeseExcessive manganese can interfere with the absorption and rational use of iron and cobalt, resulting in secondary iron and cobalt deficiency, while preventing and controllingmanganese poisoning.


Application of Manganese in Pigs

Low manganese requirement for pigsThe amount of manganese in the dry diet can meet the needs of the body, and the manganese content in most plant feeds can reach this level, so the application of manganese in pig production is relatively few.Fehse and Close in the standard feed for high-yielding sowscomplex organic trace elements of manganese, resulting in the production of sowsThe average litter size increased by 0.4 heads compared to the control group,The number of live cubs increased by 0.3 and the number of weaned cubs increased by 0.5. SameWhen the sow's production life is extended, the elimination rate decreases.

(Manganese deficiency in pigs)

Manganese deficiency in giltsIt will show increased fat deposition and skeletal deformities (shorting and thickening of the forelegs; arched forelegs; enlarged hocks).Sows of matting ageIf the lack of manganese, there will be no estrus or irregular estrus, the piglets born small weight and other symptoms.


Application of Manganese in Ruminants

Manganese isrumen microorganismIndispensable trace elements. Manganese acts as a selective cofactor for magnesium for a variety of enzymes. Therefore, manganese is an essential trace element for some rumen microorganisms.Low manganese content in ruminant livestockThe demand for manganese is not high, and the general feed diet can basically meet.







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